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Treatment for cancer during childhood often increases the risk for dental problems. It is important for children's cancer survivors to understand why dental care is especially important.
Problems that may result from chemotherapy during childhood include:
Because teeth develop slowly, these problems are more likely to develop in people who received chemotherapy over a prolonged period (several years) during childhood.
Problems that may result from radiation to the mouth and/or salivary glands include:
Taking care of teeth and gums is always important, and it is even more important if a patient had radiation or chemotherapy at a young age. If an individual's gums are not healthy, they can shrink away from teeth, causing infection in the bone supporting the roots. The bone can then dissolve away slowly, causing the teeth to become loose. This condition is called periodontitis, which means an inflammation surrounding a tooth. Periodontitis can be prevented by properly brushing the teeth and gums and by flossing between teeth at least once a day.
If a patient's permanent teeth do not develop normally, they may need caps or crowns in order to improve the function of their teeth. Sometimes reconstructive surgery is needed to correct poor bone growth of the face or jaw.
Radiation can sometimes make it difficult to open a person's mouth fully (trismus), or cause some scarring and hardening of the jaw muscles (fibrosis). Stretching exercises for the jaw may reduce fibrosis and improve the ability to open the mouth. A dentist will be able to instruct patients or refer them to occupational therapy to learn these exercises.
Crooked or small teeth may be improved by bonding. If braces are needed, a dentist will do a panorex X-ray of the teeth to see if the teeth, roots, and supporting bone are strong enough for braces.
Patients who had an allogenic bone marrow or stem cell transplant (from a donor other than themselves) should let their dentist know, so that the dentist can check for long-term complications indicating chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Dry mouth, also called "xerostomia," can occur after radiation to the head or neck. Other problems related to xerostomia include persistent sore throat, burning sensation in the mouth and gums, problems speaking, difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, or dry nasal passages. Dryness of the mouth is a result of decreased saliva and/or thickening of the saliva, and can lead to the development of cavities. This usually happens only with radiation doses of 40 Gy (4000 cGy/rads) or higher to the mouth and/or salivary glands. Drinking liquids frequently and the use of artificial saliva can help relieve the symptoms of xerostomia. Proper brushing habits are very important for people with xerostomia, as is limiting the intake of candy and other sweets. A dentist may also recommend applying a fluoride gel to teeth at least once a day to make the enamel more resistant to decay.
Patients should always let their dentist know if they have the following health conditions:
In any of these situations, bacteria that normally enter the bloodstream during dental work can result in serious infections. As a precaution against infection, patients with the above conditions should take antibiotics before any dental work. The antibiotics should be prescribed by, or discussed with, the dentist. A dentist also needs to know if patients have had a splenectomy (surgical removal of the spleen) or if they have had high doses of radiation (30 Gy - 3000 cGy/rads or more) to the spleen.
People who have had radiation to the head and neck during childhood may be at increased risk for oral cancers. Using tobacco in any form or using alcohol in combination with smoking greatly increases this risk. A dentist should perform an oral cancer screening exam during each visit. If a patient notices any of the following, they should notify their dentist immediately:
Most of the time, these symptoms do not indicate any problem, but a dentist can tell if they are the sign of a serious problem.
Follow these recommendations (unless a dentist recommends otherwise):